Mughal Empire Kings Family Tree Complete Notes for SSC, Banking

MUGHAL EMPIRE (1526 AD-1857 AD) 

In this article you get complete note on Mughal Empire Kings Complete Notes for SSC, Banking, UPSC and all competitive exams.

The Mughal Empire had two types of rulers:

(1) Great Mughal rulers

(2) Later Mughals 

The great Mughals rulers were:

(1) Babur (1526 AD-1530 AD)

(2) Humayun (1530AD-1540AD)

(3) Akbar  (1556AD-1605AD)

(4) Jahangir (1605 AD-1627 AD)

(5) Shah Jahan (1628AD-1658AD)

(6) Aurangzeb (1658 AD-1707AD)

Mughal Empire Kings Family Tree Complete Notes for SSC, Banking


1. BABAR (1526 AD-1530 AD)

In 1483 Babur was born. His parents were Umar Sheikh Mirza and Qutlag Nigar Khanum. He was a Chengiz Khan from his mother’s side and descendant of Timur on his father’s side.

His family belongs to the Chagatai section of Turks who were commonly known as Mughals.

In 1495 at the age of 12, he became the ruler of Fargana.

Babur invited by Daulat khan Lodhi (subedar of Punjab) Alam shah (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi) and Ranasangha

In 1526AD, he defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipath. In 1527AD, he defeated Ranasangha the ruler of Mewar in the battle of Khanua.

In 1528AD, he defeated Medini rai of Chanderi in the battle of Chanderi. In 1526AD, he defeated to Mahmud Lodhi in the battle of Ghagra.

In 1530AD, he died at Agra but his body was shifted to Kabul

Important information about Babur

His full name was Zahir-ud-Din-Md.Babur

He was the first ruler who used gun power in India and the Tughama system mar fare, His artillery was led by Ustad Ali and Mustafa.

He wrote his autobiography known as Tazuk-i-Baburi in Turki language. It was translated by Abdur Rahim Khana-i-Khana in Parsi and madam Banbridge in the English language. 

In Indian empire first to bring Kabul and Kandahar by Babar, after the Kushans. He built at Panipat. He also built the Babri mosque at Ayodhya.

Also read this: VEDIC AGE – Early & Later with Social, Political, Economic, Cultural Life Notes

(Mughal Empire Kings Family Tree Complete Notes for SSC, Banking)

2. HUMAYUN (1530AD-1540AD)

In 1508AD, he was born to Babur and Maham begum.

In 1530AD, he ascended the throne.

In 1532AD, he defeated the Afghans in the battle of Dourah

In 1539AD, he was defeated by Sher Shah in the battle of Chausa.

In 1540AD, he again defeated by Sher Shah in the battle of Kaunoi or Bilgram.

In 1555AD, he Returns to Delhi and became the ruler of Delhi.

In 1556AD, he died due to a fall from his library building stairs (Sher Mandal) in Delhi. 

Important information about Humayun

His original name was Nasir-Uddin Muhammad Humayun. He exiled from 1540 AD-1555 AD. He first fled to Sind then Persia.

Bairam khan was the most faithful officer of Humayun who helped Humayun to regain after 15 years of exile.

He was the lucky father of Akbar the great.

He was the weakest ruler among the great Mughals

He built Jamali Musque at Delhi.

Gulbadan Begum was his half-sister who wrote his biography ‘Humayun Namah”.

Haji Begum was one of his wife who Originally Bega Begum who built Humayun’s tomb in Delhi.

Also read this: Buddhism And Jainism Notes For UPSC

(Mughal Empire Kings Family Tree Complete Notes for SSC, Banking)

3. AKBAR (1556AD-1605AD)

Father Humayun, mother – Hamida Banu Begum.

Akbar was born to Humayun and Hamida Banu Begum at Umarkot when his father was in exile from 1540-1555AD

in 1556 he ascended the throne at the age of 14 at Kalanaur

He defeated Hemu in the 2nd battle of Panipat in 1556AD

In 1561 he defeated Baz Bahadur the ruler of Malwa.

In 1562 he married Ruqaiya sultan begum and Jodha Bai whose other name was Merian-UzZamani

In 1572 he faced a rebellion in Gujarat at and for the victors he built Buland Darwaza in 1601 In 1575 he built ibadat Khanna (the house of worship) at Fatepur Sikri of Agra.

In 1576 he defeated Maharana Pratap in the battle of Haldighat under Raja Mansingh.

1582 he formates a new religion called Din-i-llahi.

1585 he transferred his capital from Delhi to Lahore.

1586 he conquered Kashmir & 1593 -Sindh

In 1605 he died at Sikandar near Agra. 

Important information about Akbar

His original name was Jalaluddin Md. Akbar who knew as the Akbar the great

He introduced Mansabdari System and Zabti system

Tulasi Das wrote Ram Charita Manas during his time

Ralph Fitch was the first English man who visited his court.

He put a ban on killing animals on certain days. He built Panch Mahal, Diwan i-Khas, Diwan-i-Aam, Jodhabai Palace, and Sheikh Salim Chisti’s Tomb at Fatepur Sikri of Agra.

He built his own tomb at Sikandara near Agra.

He also built the Temple of Govindadera at Vrindavan

Daswanth painted the Razm Namah (Persian Mahabharat) during his time.

Parsi was the court language of Akbar.

Also read this What is Prehistory – Paleolithic, Neolithic & Mesolithic Age Notes

(Mughal Empire Kings Family Tree Complete Notes for SSC, Banking)

4. JAHANGIR (1605 AD-1627 AD)

In 1569 Jahangir was born from Akbar and Meriam-uz-7amani. His childhood name was Salim. He took the title of Nur-Uddin Md. Jahangir

In 1605 he ascended the throne.

In 1611 he married to Nur-Jahan Mehr Nissa (widow of Sher Afghan Khan)

In 1627 he died at Lahore and Succeeded by Youngest son Shahryar. 

Important information about Jahangir

He was very famous for painting. During his time painting reached the zenith.

He had a chain of justice outside his palace in Agra called Zaniir-i-Adil for roval justice.

Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe came to India during his time. 5th guru Arjun Dev was assassinated by him for helping Khussrau.

He built Moti Masjid at Lahore he also built Shalimar bagh at Srinagar. He wrote his autobiography Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri.

5. SHAH JAHAN (1628AD-1658AD)

He was born in 1592 in Jahangir and Jagat Gosain. His childhood name was Khurram.

In 1612 he married Mumtaz where the original name was Anjumand Banu daughter of Asaf Khan. In 1628 he ascended the throne from Shahryar.

In 1631 his beloves wife Mumtaz died. In 1639 he shifted his capital from Agra to Delhi and called it Shahjahanabad.

 In 1648 Peacock throne transferred from Agra to Red Fort of Delhi. In 1658 he was imprisoned by Aurangzeb who was in 1666 AD died at Agra. 

Important information about Shahjahan

The eternal Love monument Tajmahal was built by Shah Jahan.

It is called by R.N Tagore as the ‘Tear drop on the check of eternity’

It was designed by Ustad Isa and Isa Md. Effendi. The main dome was designed by Ismail khan Chiranjilal – chief sculptor and mosaicist.

Amanat Khan – Chief calligrapher

Hanif – Supervisor of a mason. Abdul Karim and Mukkarimal khan – Daily finances and management

He also built Moto Masjid at Agra, Juma Masjid and Red Fort at Delhi and Chalimar garden at Lahore

His reign is considered as “Golden age of Mughal empire”. Peacock throne was built by Shah Jahan for him. Frenchman Bernier and Tavernier and Italian adventurer Manucci visited his court.

(Mughal Empire Kings Family Tree Complete Notes for SSC, Banking)

6. AURANGZEB (1658 AD-1707AD)

Aurangzeb was born to Shah Jahan and Mumtaz in 1618 AD

His original name was Abu Muffar Muhiuddin Md. Aurangzeb. He crowed himself with the title ‘Alamgir’. He called himself ‘Zindapir’ means living saint.

When Shah Jahan became ill Dara was in Delhi, Shuai in Bengal, Murad in Gujarat and Aurangzeb was in Deccan.

Aurangzeb defeated the imperial army in the battle of Dharmatt in 1658 and defeated to Dara in the battle of Samugarh (near Agra) in 1658

In 1658 AD he ascended the throne of Delhi.

In 1665 AD, a treaty of purander was signed between Jaisingh and Shivani.

In 1675 AD he captured and executed 9th Sikh guru Teg Bahadur and built at Daulatabad.

In 1707 AD he died at Aurangabad.

Important information about Aurangzeb

Mughal Empire reached its territorial zenith during his time.

The empire extended Kashmir in the North to Jinji in the South and Chitaganj in Bengal in the East to Hindukush in the West.

He reimposed Zaziya. Nauroj were banned in his court.

He patronised Fautuhat-i-Alam-Giri written by Iswar Das.

Bibi-Ka Magbara was built at Aurangabad for his wife Rabia-Durrai- alias Dilras Banu.


Bahadur shah assumed the title shah Alam I. Also known as Shah-I Bekhabar. He made peace with Govind Singh granted Sar Deshmukhi to Marathas and released Shahu.

Jahandar Shah- first Puppest Mughal ruler he abolished Jizya.

Farrukhsiva (1713-1719)- Ascended the throne by Sayyid brothers and murdered by the Sayyid brothers. He gave English East India Company the trade Priviledge in India.

1. MUHAMMAD SHAH (1719 AD-1748 AD)

He is nicknamed Rangeela. He was the last Mughal ruler to sit on the peacock throne

He was defeated by Nadir Shah in 1739 in the battle of Karnal who took away ” Peacock Throne” and “Kohinoor Diamond”. During his time Nizam-ul-Mulk founded Hyderbad, Murshid QuliKhan founded Bengal and Saadat Khan founded Awadh.

2. AHMAD SHAH (1748 AD-1754 AD)

3. ALAMGIR II (1754 AD-1759AD)

4. SHAH ALAM II (1759AD-1806 AD)

Joined hands with Mir Qasim of Bengal, Shujau-Ud-Daula of and fought the battle of Buxar but were defeated

5. AKBAR II (1806 AD-1837 AD)

Pensioner of East India Company gave the title Raja to Ram Mohan Roy and sent to Ram Roy to London

6. BAHADUR SHAH II (1837 AD-1857 AD)

Revolt of 1857

He deported to Rangoon where he died.

(Mughal Empire Kings Family Tree Complete Notes for SSC, Banking)

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