structure of dna definition properties types

Structure of DNA-Properties, Types, Functions

In this article you will know complete about DNA like what is DNA, Structure of DNA- Definition, Properties, Types, Functions, Replications, Complete Notes

What is DNA

DNA is a molecule in which the genetic code of any person and almost all beings is present. DNA is also present in plants, animals, protists, bacteria and archaea.

DNA is in every cell of every organism and determines what proteins the cells will make.

We often get to hear about DNA when we watch movies or news, but have you ever tried to know what DNA is in the end and who discovered it.

Structure of DNA- Definition, Properties, Types, Functions, Replications, Complete Notes

By the way, there are many people who listen to its name but there are very few people who have knowledge about DNA.

This is the reason why today it came to my mind that why not tell all of you in easy words what DNA is and what is the meaning of DNA structure. So let’s start without delay and know what DNA is and what is the full form is.

Where Is This Test Done?

The DNA of any person is made from a mixture of the DNA of their parents. There are also many people who try to find out what DNA is. To answer that, we have prepared this post, so you can get all the information related to DNA by reading this post.

Vitamins are made in maximum quantity in the proteins produced by the cell. This is why many symptoms of parents occur in children, such as skin color, hairstyle, and eye color.

DNA is a long virus that contains our unique genetic code.

You will also then understand that DNA Whment is found, ie which parts of the body are from where the DNA can be used as a sample.

These bases are held or sequenced to form the genome.

Whenever we watch films, any kind of case is investigated, then DNA is taken. A lot of things are discovered through DNA. That is, it is an element that analyzes that helps to give an accurate answer.

Nowadays, DNA test shows a very important role in investigating any type of case. Its use has increased considerably, especially in forensic science. This also helps scientists a lot in carrying out their experiments.

If a drop of blood is found in a person, then the structure of DNA can be traced and the exact answer can be found, after all, who is this person, even his entire family can be found out.

The DNA structure is different from that of every organism, but when there are organisms of a lineage, their DNA is found, which shows who the parent of the organism is.

By the way, science has developed so much today that new recipients are also being made in the field of medicine. But since the discovery of DNA, many things have been simplified. This greatly helps in understanding the basic principle of anybody design.

In school and college also, children who study biology are given good information about DNA. Many people have the desire to know when and how its test is done and if they have reached this post to find this information, then they will understand it to a great extent.

Also read this: Classification of Plant Kingdom Class 11 Notes

(Structure of DNA– Definition, Properties, Types, Functions, Replications, Complete Notes)

Structure of DNA

DNA is made up of molecules containing nucleotides. And these nucleotide has a sugar group, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.

Nowadays, DNA test shows a very important role in investigating any type of case. Its use has increased considerably, especially in forensic science. This also helps scientists a lot in carrying out their experiments.

According to the National Library of Medicine (NLM), human DNA has about 3 billion bases, and greater than 99% of the rises are the same in all types of people.

The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). This base number determines the instruction or genetic code of the DNA.

Just as alphabets can be used to formation words using the letter order, DNA generates the license of the base of nitrogen in the sequence. that is in the language of the cell indicates how cells make proteins.

The second type of ribonucleic acid, nucleic acid or rayon, carries genetic information from DNA to proteins.

The two nickel spirals form spirals in the form of two long strands to form a structure called a nickel tide double helix. 

DNA molecules are long, so long, in fact, that they are perfect and cannot fit into cells without them. To fit inside cells, DNA is tightly coiled into structures that we call chromosomes.

If you think this double helix structure is like a step, then phosphate and sugar will have their side as an aside. While Ri will be their rub.

One strand causes the pair to pair with the other stand. Adenine with thymine forms pair while guan with pirrosine forms pairs.

Each chromosome contains a single DNA virus. Humans have 23 phase chromosomes, which are found inside the nucleus of a cell.

(Structure of DNA– Definition, Properties, Types, Functions, Replications, Complete Notes)

Types of DNA 

DNA consists of four baseline blocks or bases.

  • Adenine (A),
  • Cytosine (C),
  • guanine (G) and
  • Thymine (T).

Discovery of DNA

The discovery of DNA was occurred in 1950 AD by the scientist James Watson who is an American biologist and  Francis Crick who is an English physicist

DNA was first discovered by Friedrich Miescher who had a German biochemist in the year of 1869 AD.

But until many years later, researchers did not realize the importance of this virus at all. But this was only the case until 1953, until James Watson, Francis Crick, Morris Wilkins, and Roseland Franklin discovered the structure of DNA.

This structure was in the form of a double helix that they felt could carry biological information.

Molecular structure of nucleic acids Watson Crick and Wilkins have been awarded as Nobel Prize in the year of 1962  in the field of medicine for efforts of their response to its importance for the transfer of information between organisms.

By the way, there is a great difference between people who have discovered it. We have also tried to give you information about who first gave information about it in reality and then who did the search for its main use.

What is DNA sequencing?

DNA sequencing is a technique that allows researchers to determine the order of bases in a DNA number. 

Technology can be used to determine the recruitment of genes, chromosomes, or bases to an entire genus.

In 2000, researchers completed the first complete sequence of the human genome, according to a report by the National Human Genome Research Institute.

(Structure of DNA– Definition, Properties, Types, Functions, Replications, Complete Notes)

Function of DNA

DNA stores the information required to create and control a cell.

The transfer of information from mother to daughter through the process of DNA replication is also known as genetic transmission.

DNA of nucleosides and nucleotides can be used in this chemical form for cells. Unlike other macromolecules, DNA does not play a role in the structure of cells.

Coding For Proteins 

DNA codes for proteins that are complex molecules and that work heavily around our bodies. The information in the DNA is initially read and then transformed into a messenger molecule.

This language is one of the amino acids known as the billing block of proteins. This is the special language that describes how amino acids should produce a particular protein.

The information placed in this communicator is then translated into a language that the body can understand.

Genetic Code

DNA is very important for our genetic code. 

It transfers genetic messages to all cells of your body.

If you think of a reproductive function, consider that the addition of an egg and sperm to form your first cell provides your complete genetic code that your body will use throughout your life.

Before that, half of your chromosome within the cell, which we call the chromosome that contains your DNA, came from your father and half came from your mother.

DNA shows a distinctly important role in the human body and is one of the most important paintings of the twentieth century. Will help us to know more about knowledge of our DNA work.

Also read this: Classification of Living Organisms Class 11 Notes

(Structure of DNA– Definition, Properties, Types, Functions, Replications, Complete Notes)

DNA replication

The DNA responses are essential for every function from the reproduction of a cell, tissue, and body systems to maintenance and growth.

Your body’s cells replicate so that good and blood cells are possible.

A DNA molecule essentially unzips to copy itself. DNA has four main bases. All parts of a nucleotide are special, including sugar and phosphate. 

Importance of DNA

Nowadays, if you go into the medical sector, you get to know a lot about the characteristics of DNA.

We understand through most of the films and newspapers shown on TV that DNA miraculously helps medical science. Let us know about some important facts of this.

Diagnosis and Treatment

An important part of DNA research is genetic and clinical research. Due to the detection of our DNA, the ability to treat the disease quickly has improved.

In fact, there are no medications that stop the flow of emotions, although their effects can be curbed.

In addition, we can better assess a person’s genetic predisposition to specific diseases. To do this, we have allowed the development of new drugs to treat these diseases.

DNA discovery basically leads to drugs and treatments for patients with severe diseases that were previously considered dangerous and in the absence or failure of treatment.

Paternity and Legal Influence

Although the invention of DNA has affected the most, its benefaction to other fields is still equally important. Paternity cases have a great impact on families and children around the world.

Through the assessment of DNA, the paternity of the child can be affected, which has a significant impact on the child’s upbringing and life.

Agriculture and DNA

The effect of DNA on farming is very important because it has facilitated the breeders to breed animals that have better immunity to diseases.

It also allows farmers to produce more nutritious produce, which is of particularly significant consequence in countries where populations depend on a small range of small foods that have very little diversity.

This means that micronutrient deficiencies in these countries can be overcome.

Forensics and DNA

DNA is quite important in the field of forensic science. 

The discovery of DNA means that a person investigating a crime can be traced between a guilt and innocent human.

It is also important that victims can be identified, especially in cases where the victim’s status is unfamiliar to family or friends.

It also means that little evidence about the perpetrator of a crime can still provide significant clauses. 

In this sense, DNA has been instrumental in bringing revolution in the whole field of forensic science.

This effect is felt within the criminal justice system and contributes to the precise protection of society.

In short

In this fast-developing era of today, every day new innovations are bringing rapid changes in our lives. As time is being passed, in the same way, TS has become more developed. It is used in both aspects, good and bad. 

But the truth is that the use of technologies is done keeping in mind only good works. But how it is used by people depends on them. 

Many people only know it by the name of DNA but only a few people know what the full form of DNA is (full form of DNA in English). That is why in this post we told you what is the importance of DNA and what works.

So that you people have full knowledge about it. We hope that you have got all the information related to this post, if you like this post, then share it more and more on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram.

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